HTTP/1.1 200 OK Cache-Control: no-cache, private Content-Type: text/html; charset=UTF-8 Date: Mon, 30 Nov 2020 17:50:30 GMT 三级配电箱线路图

上海警方抓获窃取华住集团数据信息的犯罪嫌疑人

Editorials

Covid-19: breaking the chain of household transmission

BMJ 2020; 370 doi: 燕郊维多利亚公寓可变住宅不限购? (Published 14 August 2020) Cite this as: BMJ 2020;370:m3181

Read our latest coverage of the coronavirus outbreak

  1. Shamil Haroon, clinical lecturer in primary care1,
  2. Joht Singh Chandan, academic clinical fellow in public health12,
  3. John Middleton, president3,
  4. Kar Keung Cheng, professor of public health and primary care1
  1. 1Institute of Applied Health Research, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK
  2. 2Warwick Medical School, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK
  3. 3Association of Schools of Public Health in the European Region (ASPHER)
  1. Correspondence to: S Haroon s.haroon{at}bham.ac.uk

记者调查:三线城市居民投资房产 看好北京周边

The UK is one of the countries most severely affected by covid-19. Recent outbreaks in English towns such as Oldham, probably involving transmission within large multigenerational households, show the importance of getting the right public health measures in place now to prevent more widespread surges in infections.1

Current test and trace policies have mainly focused on preventing spread in care homes, hospitals, and in the community.2 However, contact within households is thought to be responsible for roughly 70% of SARS-CoV-2 transmission when widespread community control measures are in place.3 In Wuhan, the reproduction number (R) dropped from 3.54 to 1.18 after lockdown and cordon sanitaire. But the epidemic was only brought under complete control when Fangcang (field) hospitals were introduced to isolate cases outside the home, with R dropping to 0.51 after two weeks.4

Current UK guidance advises household contacts to isolate within the same home as the index case for 14 days.5 They make up the majority of contacts for infected individuals and are likely to remain exposed to the infected household member during this period of isolation.6 Despite guidance advising household members to socially distance, contacts are likely to interact repeatedly—during mealtimes, for example—and to share facilities such as bathrooms.

We know that transmission is more likely to occur indoors than outdoors.7 The cumulative risk to household contacts from an infected person is likely to be substantial during peak viral shedding. In one study in New York State, 38% of household contacts tested positive for SARS-Cov-2, and similar secondary infection rates have been reported in China.89 Transmission may be even higher among household contacts of essential workers, who are at greater risk of being infected than the general population.10

Household members who are older, have underlying medical conditions, or share a bed or vehicle with the index case are the most susceptible.91112 Children seem to be at lower risk of being infected.13 However, their stool samples and nasopharyngeal swabs can remain positive for SARS-CoV-2 for more than two weeks after symptom resolution,14 although their role in transmission remains to be established.

Governments should consider new public health measures to prevent household transmission as we prepare for a potential second wave. Household quarantine is likely to remain an important pandemic control measure, and government support for people quarantined at home is conspicuously absent in the UK: this position has been challenged by independent experts.15

Effective isolation

Effective isolation of index cases from household members could reduce secondary infections.12 Wearing masks within quarantined households may help, particularly if used by the index case as soon as infection is suspected.16 The World Health Organization recommends that infected people and unavoidable close contacts, particularly those in vulnerable groups, should wear medical masks, but Public Health England does not currently recommend this. Other measures that should be considered (and evaluated) include clear advice on enhanced personal hygiene; cleaning and disinfecting shared toilets and other common spaces, door handles, and touch points; and staggering mealtimes.

People who are unable to self-isolate safely at home could be accommodated in special isolation facilities such as hotels and hostels, an approach adopted by some other countries, including Italy, Finland, and Lithuania.17 In China, field hospitals were created to manage and strictly isolate patients with mild-to-moderate covid-19.18 Nightingale hospitals in the UK could be similarly repurposed to support isolation of infected people with mild-to-moderate disease. As medical and nursing care needs are mostly modest, the cost would be relatively low. However, such a system depends on access to rapid testing for anyone with symptoms or possible exposure so that infection can be confirmed and isolation started before transmission occurs. It would also require public trust that isolation in these facilities would be voluntary, safe, and supportive.

不过,更大的尺寸将会对iOS 7和开发人员施加额外压力——后者必须找出方法,使自己的应用程序适用于更多配置规格。而另一方面,这些额外的规格也将为应用程序提供一些更为激动人心的机遇,我们应该能看到iOS 8将包含诸多可适应多屏幕规格的功能。
根据研究机构Millward Brown编制的BrandZ最新排行榜,全球100个最具价值品牌的品牌价值仍远远领先于其他品牌,今年它们的总价值上升3%,至3.4万亿美元。
One fifth of the rich in the 500 list are from the information technology industry, and capital players are fading away from the list.
The largest flawless vivid blue diamond in the world is to go on sale today at Christie's auction house.
adj. 有营养的,滋养的
n. 道德,美德,品行,道德观
“中国银行业面临的逆风将延续很长时间,”他说。“除了盈利来源减少,它们还将不得不为坏账带来的亏损做好准备。”

200910/87441.shtml
['rep?twɑ:]
“We sell cars+ , if you don’t give us cars, naturally we won’t be able to go on, we’ll close,” Wang said in an interview, estimating import dealers are losing between 3 million and 10 million yuan a year each. The group seeking compensation represents 30 of the roughly 40 remaining imported Hyundai dealers in the country.
每个月,梦工厂(DreamWorks)的员工都能收到价值25美元的消费券,可在位于格伦代尔和雷德伍德城园区的“梦工厂打印中心”消费。由于只收取原材料费用,该工作室能以低价向员工提供各类服务,例如在贺卡上打印照片、制作个性化日历等。
反对:在颁奖季前一年早早上映可能不利于其冲奖。

Footnotes

  • 银川市探索土地托管促“节本增效” 资金压力和人才短缺日益凸显
  • China is spending heavily on renewable and nuclear energy as it tries to slow the growth of coal, but despite those efforts it has become by far the largest emitter of greenhouse gases. Its emissions of 10 billion tons a year of carbon dioxide from the burning of fossil fuels and cement manufacturing are almost twice those of the United States, though emissions per person are still far higher in the United States.

History will look back on 2012 as the year when China anointed its "fifth generation" of leaders and shifted to a slower growth trajectory, writes Yukon Huang. This transition will take place against a backdrop of daunting internal challenges — increasing social unrest, widening income disparities and both ecological and man-made disasters — and of escalating external tensions, stemming from America's "pivot" to Asia and simmering regional worries about China's economic rise.
上海复旦大学社会发展与公共政策学院院长彭希哲周二告诉环球时报,在产业结构升级的过程中,劳动密集型产业搬离都市圈,是导致这一人口变迁的最主要原因之一。
深受大众喜爱的电视连续剧《仙剑奇侠传》的电影版本于今日在浙江正式开拍。
“网络反腐大部分靠文字、照片、视频等,从这些途径‘揪’贪官,容易流于表面化。”
2017年,我国购买了14.1万台工业机器人,同比增长58.1%,然而在购买的机器人中,外资品牌占比近3/4,这表明国产与国外机器人制造商存在的差距仍在扩大。
2. 邻客音(LinkedIn)。品牌喜爱度:47%/排名:309

统计局:一季度房地产业GDP同比增2.5%

References

View Abstract