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1分钟12秒破10亿 照明巨头如何参战“国际化双 11”?

Editorials

Covid-19: breaking the chain of household transmission

BMJ 2020; 370 doi: 财政部:对公租房免征房产税 (Published 14 August 2020) Cite this as: BMJ 2020;370:m3181

Read our latest coverage of the coronavirus outbreak

  1. Shamil Haroon, clinical lecturer in primary care1,
  2. Joht Singh Chandan, academic clinical fellow in public health12,
  3. John Middleton, president3,
  4. Kar Keung Cheng, professor of public health and primary care1
  1. 1Institute of Applied Health Research, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK
  2. 2Warwick Medical School, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK
  3. 3Association of Schools of Public Health in the European Region (ASPHER)
  1. Correspondence to: S Haroon s.haroon{at}bham.ac.uk

9月钢材出口同比降逾两成 出口量已触及隐形天花板

The UK is one of the countries most severely affected by covid-19. Recent outbreaks in English towns such as Oldham, probably involving transmission within large multigenerational households, show the importance of getting the right public health measures in place now to prevent more widespread surges in infections.1

Current test and trace policies have mainly focused on preventing spread in care homes, hospitals, and in the community.2 However, contact within households is thought to be responsible for roughly 70% of SARS-CoV-2 transmission when widespread community control measures are in place.3 In Wuhan, the reproduction number (R) dropped from 3.54 to 1.18 after lockdown and cordon sanitaire. But the epidemic was only brought under complete control when Fangcang (field) hospitals were introduced to isolate cases outside the home, with R dropping to 0.51 after two weeks.4

Current UK guidance advises household contacts to isolate within the same home as the index case for 14 days.5 They make up the majority of contacts for infected individuals and are likely to remain exposed to the infected household member during this period of isolation.6 Despite guidance advising household members to socially distance, contacts are likely to interact repeatedly—during mealtimes, for example—and to share facilities such as bathrooms.

We know that transmission is more likely to occur indoors than outdoors.7 The cumulative risk to household contacts from an infected person is likely to be substantial during peak viral shedding. In one study in New York State, 38% of household contacts tested positive for SARS-Cov-2, and similar secondary infection rates have been reported in China.89 Transmission may be even higher among household contacts of essential workers, who are at greater risk of being infected than the general population.10

Household members who are older, have underlying medical conditions, or share a bed or vehicle with the index case are the most susceptible.91112 Children seem to be at lower risk of being infected.13 However, their stool samples and nasopharyngeal swabs can remain positive for SARS-CoV-2 for more than two weeks after symptom resolution,14 although their role in transmission remains to be established.

Governments should consider new public health measures to prevent household transmission as we prepare for a potential second wave. Household quarantine is likely to remain an important pandemic control measure, and government support for people quarantined at home is conspicuously absent in the UK: this position has been challenged by independent experts.15

Effective isolation

Effective isolation of index cases from household members could reduce secondary infections.12 Wearing masks within quarantined households may help, particularly if used by the index case as soon as infection is suspected.16 The World Health Organization recommends that infected people and unavoidable close contacts, particularly those in vulnerable groups, should wear medical masks, but Public Health England does not currently recommend this. Other measures that should be considered (and evaluated) include clear advice on enhanced personal hygiene; cleaning and disinfecting shared toilets and other common spaces, door handles, and touch points; and staggering mealtimes.

People who are unable to self-isolate safely at home could be accommodated in special isolation facilities such as hotels and hostels, an approach adopted by some other countries, including Italy, Finland, and Lithuania.17 In China, field hospitals were created to manage and strictly isolate patients with mild-to-moderate covid-19.18 Nightingale hospitals in the UK could be similarly repurposed to support isolation of infected people with mild-to-moderate disease. As medical and nursing care needs are mostly modest, the cost would be relatively low. However, such a system depends on access to rapid testing for anyone with symptoms or possible exposure so that infection can be confirmed and isolation started before transmission occurs. It would also require public trust that isolation in these facilities would be voluntary, safe, and supportive.

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“万一有个通过Airbnb投宿的客人放火了怎么办?”纽约市律师协会(New York City Bar Association)合作公寓和共管公寓法律委员会(Cooperative and Condominium Law Committee)的会长菲利丝·H·韦斯伯格(Phyllis H. Weisberg)问,“谁来赔偿损失?”
双语:明星纹身爱用拉丁语 粉丝追捧学语言
The EU is making clear it wants to use the void in US leadership on trade to nail down new trade agreements. The negotiations with the Mercosur trade bloc in Latin America have been going on in fits and starts for more than a decade. But the EU and key Mercosur members like Argentina are now pushing to conclude a deal by the end of this year. That would be a big statement planted right in the US’s backyard.
The women in tech: Tech takes a second turn as a category on the Power Women list. Five tech women made the top 25 this year, including Facebook’s Sheryl Sandberg (No. 6), Rometty (No. 12) and HP’s Meg Whitman (No. 15). There are 16 tech women in total, including also Susan Wojcicki, SVP of ads at Google (No. 30) and Sun Yafang, chair of Huawei Technologies (No. 77).
This makes China the leader among middle-income economies for this indicator, followed by India which has overtaken Brazil, according to the report jointly released by Cornell University, INSEAD and the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO).

林怡仲预测道,下半年A股IPO的数量或将维持与上半年相当,预计2016年全年A股IPO为120宗左右,融资规模在600-800亿元人民币左右。
According to historical accounts, Richard's body was transported naked and bloody on the back of a pack horse to Leicester before being buried in an unmarked grave at Greyfriars, a Franciscan friary in the central English city.
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And the best gig for 2015? That would be an actuary, the people who specialize in financial risk.
They will get more creative in 2018, including on non-cash benefits. Bank of America, for example, has just introduced a programme allowing employees of the global banking and markets unit to take a sabbatical — on full pay — for up to six weeks in a year. There are conditions: people must have been with the bank for at least a decade, and can request the time once every five years, to a maximum of three. But in a memo circulated this week, seen by the Financial Times, chief operating officer Tom Montag urged eligible employees to consider it.

Footnotes

  • 被点评批评后 58同城、赶集网等房源发布仍存乱象
  • Jeanie Buss's decision to finally dump Jim Buss—a man with none of the skills required to be a quality executive and years of floundering moves to his name—makes the Lakers clear winners all by itself.

"They say: 'I wonder why she kept her head down in the meeting; I wonder why she's not eager to take over that project; I wonder why she's leaving early a couple days a week," Kay says. "You're planting questions in their head."
北极和南极海冰量均降至历史最低水平
飓风厄玛
The World Health Organization this year declared H1N1 a global epidemic. Fortunately, it is much less threatening than people previously believed, and newly introduced vaccines seem to have quelled lingering fears.
还有些人直接就玩消失了:
北极和南极海冰量均降至历史最低水平

南昌规范管理住房租赁市场:已建未售商业和办公用房可改长租住房

References

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