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Psychosocial Environment

Common Stressors

Stress, much like beauty, is in the eye of the beholder. What is stressful for one person may not be for another. However, there are some events and environments which typically cause stress:1

  • Changes to family: marriage, pregnancy, death, divorce, a new child
  • Work environment: job change, job loss, promotion, work overload, conflict at work, business failure, employee strike
  • Living environment: new house, relocation to a new community, loss of a home, neighborhood crime
  • Physical environment or conditions: noise, pollution, traffic, violence, illness, disability, injury, pain, cold, heat, lack of sleep, hunger, malnutrition, natural disaster, unsafe surroundings, physical abuse or neglect
  • Economic environment: poverty, escalating bills, unanticipated expenses, theft
  • Social environment: isolation, family or peer demands, forced separation (such as from military service, prison, abandonment or conflict), grief, emotional abuse or neglect, legal entanglements, bullying, difficult roommates or neighbors

But shipments to other destinations fared far worse, particularly those to re-exporter Hong Kong, which saw the dollar value of exports from China contract 26.3 per cent year on year to $33.84bn. Shipments to EU countries also fell 4.7 per cent to $33.5bn, while those to Japan dropped 5.5 per cent to $11.27bn.

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“I saw a woman die and I saw the president of the United States refuse to unequivocally condemn the people who killed her.”
双语:明星纹身爱用拉丁语 粉丝追捧学语言
“许多公司在过去几年中大量裁员,不少团队超负荷运转,为了减轻它们的负担,公司纷纷开始招兵买马,”罗伯特哈夫公司董事会主席兼首席执行官麦克斯?麦斯默尔(Max Messmer)指出。“有些机构是出于眼下的需要才增加人手,但很多企业也是在为2011年有望出现的经济增长做好人才储备。”

11月,财新-Markit制造业采购经理人指数(PMI)从10月的51%降至50.8%,接近区分扩张和收缩的50%大关。此前,路透社(Reuters)对经济学家进行调查得出的预测中值曾预计,制造业PMI将降至50.9%。
But once again, Bryant said he's fine, that his health is fine, that his shot is fine, and he diverted the conversation elsewhere, largely to his teammates and the team's overall scheme.
这个眼光长远的女孩也希望自己在网络上的知名度能够帮助自己跻身演绎界,为她谋取一个在美国广播公司制作的美剧《童话镇》中饰演艾丽莎一角的试镜机会。该剧将在下一季中加入艾丽莎这个角色。

Our psychosocial environment includes our responses to stressors in our lives, from temporary ones such as a traffic jam to major stressors such as war, homelessness or major disease. Our relationships with family members, friends, colleagues and other individuals and groups with whom we interact in our communities are an important part of this environment. These can impact our capacity to deal with stressors. Nurturing, supportive relationships allow us to better access all our innate resources to respond to stress in positive ways.2

family support

 

前9月全国商品房销售额49227亿元 下降8.9%

加拿大整体排名第二,幅员辽阔,位居世界第二。“生活质量”与“教育最佳国家”均居首位。
补救办法:这种遗憾的棘手之处在于,它通常是后知后觉的。只有在你已经离开这个岗位并找到了更好的工作之后,你才会开始后悔为什么没有早点跳槽,即使这原本是不切实际的想法。你能做的就是找到使你留在这个岗位的理由,作为以后提醒自己的信号。另外,你还要通过各种途径使自己可以在机遇出现的时候能够快速抓住它,比如你可以按月或按季度重新审视自己并用新的成果来更新你的简历;同步更新在LinkedIn上的信息;准备应急资金以减轻你对当前工作的依赖;了解业内最新消息,以便知道自己可以在哪里大展拳脚。
In a bid to raise awareness of one of the world's most endangered species and the Chengdu Panda Base in China, the 108 performers were hard to miss as they entertained Londoners and children during school visits with conservationist and base ambassador Nigel Marven.

Stress and the Body's Response

Our bodies, families, communities and lives are embedded in a complex network of systems. The degree of support in the environment can shape a person’s resilience. Likewise, an environment that is stressful can foster disease. The conditions of a person’s social and psychological environment—those in which they are born, grow, live, work and age—are known as the social determinants of health. These conditions are shaped by the distribution of money, power and resources at global, national and local levels.3

Risks for Stress: Riskscapes

A riskscape, or landscape of risks, captures the overlapping threats to health occurring in a physical location that increase risk for disease.4 An example of overlapping risks can be seen in impoverished neighborhoods,5 which often experience many of the stressors listed above simultaneously. We discuss poverty in more detail on our Socioeconomic Environment page.

Minority status, age and gender further interact to increase risk for disease.6 Individuals experience additional adversity when they live amid wealth and affluence but do not share those resources.7

1977:“俄罗斯型流感”H1N1感染人类1977: "Russian flu" H1N1 Infects Humans
'The market for colored diamonds is really, really high, because they are so rare,' he said.
在出售给Facebook前,WhatsApp一直特别反对植入广告。该公司首席执行官让o库姆在自己桌上一直贴着联合创始人布莱恩o阿克顿留下的一张便条,随时提醒自己牢记公司的核心价值观:“不要广告!不要游戏!不要宣传噱头!”这样一来,短信应用只好想出别的创意。比如Tango就在用户的短信“收件箱”里插入广告。中国互联网巨头腾讯公司旗下的短信应用——微信,则通过游戏、贴纸(类似于表情符号)和移动购物等方式谋取赚钱之道。Kik则提供一种被一些人称为“聊天广告”的功能,用户通过它能和幽默网站Funny or Die及电影信息网站Moviefone这类品牌运营的聊天程序进行交谈。

Stressful Environments and the Social Ecological Model of Health

The rise of chronic disease is a complex and growing problem for public health in the US.8 Stress, particularly exposure to long-term chronic stress, is associated with the majority of chronic health conditions.9

Social Ecological Model of Health

The Social Ecological Model of Health Promotion (SEM) describes how our psychosocial experiences are nested inside layers that influence health and well-being:10

  • individual
  • interpersonal (familial)
  • communal (neighborhood)
  • societal

The Human Stress Response System

This response system is evolutionarily old and has been shaped by the environmental experiences of thousands of preceding generations. Through millennia of adverse environmental challenges, adaptations and collective evolution, humans have developed a sophisticated stress response system.11

The physical stress response is a complex network of coordinated physical and behavioral activations from the endocrine and nervous systems:12

When a threat is perceived, the hypothalamus activates the sympathetic nervous system (the "fight or flight" response) by sending signals through the autonomic nerves to the adrenal glands. The adrenal glands pump the hormone epinephrine—also known as adrenaline—into the bloodstream, causing several physiological changes:13
  • [plein]
  • 万科改造深圳城中村引争议,租户担心房租飞涨
  • 《前第一夫人要求伊斯兰教变得宽容并支持女权》(A Former First Lady Presses On for a Tolerant, Feminist Islam)
  • 南安水暖卫浴行业:用技术占据行业制高点
  • 中央经济工作会议:坚决打击违法违规金融活动
  • 3.8 推进以保障和改善民生为重点的社会建设
    Martin Ford, author of The Rise of the Robots , received the 30,000 Financial Times and McKinsey Business Book of the Year Award at a ceremony in New York on Tuesday.

When the initial surge of epinephrine subsides, the hypothalamus activates the 政府授权公投取消 “佛山陶瓷”或将不可能注册成功, signaling the release of cortisol to keep the sympathetic nervous system engaged.

When the threat passes, the parasympathetic nervous system (the "rest and digest" function) calms the body and returns it to a pre-threat state.

PsychosocialHPA

Click to zoom

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The SEM is particularly useful in allowing researchers to study stressors from the micro scale (cellular) to the macro scale (social policy), positioning their work in the larger social ecological context.14 Layers are labeled with their corresponding social determinants of health.

PsychosocialSEMModelLWalker

夹江古建青砖市场陷入混乱 企业实施减产计划

Policies that affect economic and social determinants (top level) can decrease access to income and education, and have powerful effects on neighborhood stressors.15

These policies shape disparities in local environments (second level)16 such as poverty, pollution, crime rates and political power.

Daily opportunities (third level) create or suppress nurturing environments and govern the frequency and intensity of daily hassles (discrimination and microaggressions).17

These layers affect our daily behaviors and patterns (fourth level) and daily interactions.

As these pressures funnel down from the political to the community to the individual, they become observational cues (fifth level) that the environment is threatening, unpredictable or uncontrollable and thus stressful.18

Upon activation, the brain sends signals to the body to mount a stress response.19

stressed child

深圳房价超越香港 成全球最买不起房的城市

Allostasis: The Body’s Stress Response

When the brain interprets a threat, it sends a cascading signal through the body that causes a stress response, known casually as "fight or flight" and more formally as an allostatic response.20 See The Human Stress Response System at right for more detail.

In healthy doses and supportive environments, this response is tempered and can foster learning.21 In adversarial environments the allostatic response can manifest as chest pain, heart palpitations, headaches, dysphagia (difficulty swallowing), intestinal cramping, anxiety, panic, immobility, frustration, muscle tension and inflammation.22

These reactions can be exhausting and imprint a strong memory of fear on the brain.23 Fortunately, a feedback system in the brain is capable of stopping the stress response. 24 Terminating the stress response and restoring the body to pre-stress response states is important to protecting the body’s long-term health.25

Programming the Stress Response

When early-life experiences signal that the environment is unpredictable, threatening or uncontrollable, the stress response system may be reprogrammed, becoming blunted,26 or may be programmed to be sensitized and thus more responsive.

Responsivity is informed by the number of steroid receptors available during stress termination.27 The feedback system in the brain—cells in the hippocampus—have glucocorticoid receptors that, once filled, signal the termination of the stress response. When there are fewer glucocorticoid receptors in these cells, it takes a higher circulating quantity of cortisol to terminate the stress response.

The number of receptors available in the feedback system is dependent on how many proteins are produced in that cell. This is determined by the availability of the receptor gene to be transcribed into proteins. Stress signals, such as cortisol, circulating in maternal blood during pregnancy, can epigenetically alter the glucocorticoid receptor gene to be permanently downregulated, causing fewer receptor proteins to be produced.28

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How our bodies respond to stress varies across the population,29 determined by genetic predisposition30 and previous experiences including exposure to maternal stress signals before birth31 The typical responsivity can be modified by genetic predisposition32 but is generally neither amplified nor repressed.33 This neutral programming is optimal in moderately stressful environment where life is not overly threatening nor consistently safe. Over an individual’s life, neutral programming is optimal in balancing the risk for internal burnout from repetitive stress burden and survival in adverse environments long enough to maximize periods for mating and parenting.34

Chronic Stress and Disease: Weathering

With repeated exposure to stressors, the HPA axis activation is sustained, and stress signals continue to flood the body. This sustained activation delays the onset of restorative repair and pushes the body into pre-disease states.35 Chronic stress acts on the cardiovascular, metabolic, neuroendocrine and immune systems:36

  • The piece was taken away for laboratory testing, and the Spielman family only received a phone call this month telling them the amulet had been identified.
    “Someone resigned via a video conference call.”
  • [pr?s'periti]
    And a few stopped to change a tire for an elderly French couple.
    Here are our top 10expectations for China in 2014:
    休伊·沃表示,每架飞机每天飞行12到16个航段,每个航班晚点都很容易造成当天几个航班的延误。为了解决这个问题,航空公司的系统运行和控制中心会在必要时做出调整。这可能涉及到把备用飞机和临时机组成员排入时间表,确保航班的准时到达。
    这份排行榜基于对商学院及其2013届毕业生的调查。根据校友职业发展、学校创意生成以及学员和师资多样化对MBA课程进行评比。

Over time, stress deteriorates health and resilience. This process is referred to as weathering.37 Just as a flag that weathers many storms begins to fray, so too does the body when it experiences harsh environments of social inequity.38 The health outcomes are mental illness, chronic disease morbidity and premature death.39 In short, stress causes physical changes that impact our health and functioning.

The frequency, duration, intensity, source, target and proximity of stressors influence the extent of the stress response. The duration of response can increase an individual’s risk for physical and mental burnout. Stressors that are higher intensity or longer duration carry a high internal burden (allostatic load).40 Over time this internal pressure forces body systems to adapt in ways that foster pre-disease states.41

In weathering, each body system adapts to this internal pressure through secondary changes:42

Dysregulation in these areas  can cause these secondary changes.43   With chronic stress, such changes increase the risk for these conditions:44
  • Cardiopulmonary system
  • Metabolism
  • Mental functioning
  • Autoimmune response
  • Aging
  • Increased startle response
  • Anxiety and vigilance
  • 房贷利率创五年新低 重点城市仍现高成交
  • Glucose sensitivity
  • Immune suppression
  • 8月家居建材销售额环比上涨 积极因素叠加

Stress-induced Gene Expression

Physiologic shifts following stressful exposures occur in large part through hormone-activated gene expression.45 When cortisol is released by the adrenal glands into the blood stream, it targets glucocorticoid responsive genes in tissues distributed throughout the body,46 including the central nervous system, metabolism, immune, cardiovascular, endocrine and renal systems.47

Within each cell nucleus, the steroid hormone binds with its receptor, and this complex binds to a stretch of DNA called a hormone response element.48 This binding activates gene expression to shift the physiologic activity of the target cell. In this way, stressful experiences, mediated through the allostatic response, have an epigenetic effect on the body.

See our Gene-Environment Interaction page for further explanation.

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Through this process, chronic stress responses cause weathering on the body, eroding health status.49 As years turn into decades, the physiologic changes (such as hypertension, metabolic disorder or anxiety) may become irreversible, often increasing co-morbidities, potentially increasing maladaptive coping mechanisms (such as social aversion, drug and alcohol dependence) and decreasing life expectancy.50

Through these mechanisms social structures can get under the skin, alter our bodies and cause disease. The loss of productivity and financial burden of systemic disease further erodes family and community resilience, especially when the chronic stress starts in childhood.51

Disadvantaged Populations

Lower social classes experience longer durations of chronic stress, such as lengthy unemployment or institutionalized discrimination. Those with less power experience barriers to achievement of life goals, such as high costs of educational programs or lack of childcare options, inadequate recognition and rewards for personal qualification (such as gender pay differences) or for invested effort in the workplace. In the US and other White-majority countries, minorities and women in these environments are exposed to more chronic stressors than their White male counterparts due to differential expectations resulting in role strain and interpersonal conflict.52

Both the sources and frequency of stressors are not distributed equally in society, with heavier burdens borne by those with less advantage.53 These systems of inequity create differences in health outcomes, known as health disparities.54

Stressful Environments and the Developing Child

Stress Effects on Brain Development

intel在…中间+lig选择,收集+ence→从中选出好的→智力;聪明
We began the year worried that the US was poised to withdraw from the World Trade Organisation. That hasn’t happened. And it’s now unlikely to any time soon.
在简历中提到你的孩子和嗜好没有任何好处。永远不要说,“我的孩子上大学了,我就能安心回到工作岗位了。”
雷文斯克罗夫特最终不再从事教学工作,他创办了Enabling Enterprise,这是一家寻求减轻学校和企业脱节现象的机构,它让学生走出教室,从事实践项目并实地探访包括瑞银(UBS)和富而德律所(Freshfields)在内的企业。
John Stevenage, chief executive of British Mensa, said he was delighted for Nishi. He said: 'I hope she will make full use of her membership to meet new, like-minded people and challenge herself. Joining Mensa opens the door to an international network of more than 100,000 people and many members make friends for life.
外部事件的影响。《消费者报告》(Consumer Reports)杂志曾经对Model S大加吹捧,但最近该杂志也报道了它的一些常见故障,包括门把手失效,中控触屏白屏,导致车内大部分功能不能使用等等。汽车网站Edmunds.com也找了Model S的麻烦。更多此类报告无疑会影响特斯拉到目前为止非常正面的声誉。
n. 声明,陈述

These exposures increased amygdala function, which enhances fear, anxiety, and emotional dysfunction, while it decreased prefrontal cortex function, which participates in regulating and terminating the stress response.55

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Our stress system responds to environmental conditions even before birth56 and is especially sensitive early in development.57 Glucocorticoid receptors are found in most fetal tissue and in the placenta, suggesting they are capable of responding to high maternal cortisol. Early-life experiences shape our stress response and therefore the impact stress has on our health over the life course.

A person’s individual responsiveness to stress signals can shape brain development.58 Highly responsive individuals demonstrate better learning and health outcomes in supportive environments and worse health outcomes in high adversity environments.59 Supportive environments foster better mental and social learning, increase memory and improve decision-making; in such environments, children have adequate time for stress response termination and are generally characterized by openness to information.

In negative environments, however, high responsivity magnifies the body’s response to intense or chronic stressors, increasing the risk for weathering over the life span. Highly responsive individuals can become hypersensitive to social feedback and psychological manipulation, both capable of detracting individuals from achieving goals.60 This increases the risk for future stressful experiences, further increasing the risk for weathering.

cycle of stress and performance

Stress responsivity shapes the intensity of weathering and has implications for later adult health outcomes.61 Responsivity biased toward either under- or over-reactivity can predispose children to adult disease.62 For example, overexposure to maternal stress hormones before birth can restrict birth weight and predispose the developing child to hypertension later in life.63 Effects of parental stress, such as reduced opportunities for bonding and distant parent-child relationships, significantly increase the risk up to fourfold for a child to experience anxiety, depression, diabetes and heart disease as an adult.64 Higher prenatal glucocorticoid exposure is directly associated with higher circulating glucocorticoids in adulthood, and both are associated with increased hypertension and hyperglycemia and changes in adult behaviors.65

Investigating Brain Changes

We rely heavily on animal models to understand early-life stress programming because sampling a core of living human brain is not an option. However, we do have direct human associations: the brains of suicide completers show epigenetic changes in the glucocorticoid receptor gene66 as well as methylation changes in other important genes that inform the intensity of the stress response.67

Newborns of mothers with depressive symptoms during pregnancy also demonstrated increased methylation of the GR gene in umbilical cord blood cells. As three-month-old infants, these children had higher levels of salivary cortisol.68

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Brain Changes

With exposure to chronic stress, the brain changes shape, reducing connections that support nuanced cognitive function, self-regulation and memory; this process is less reversible as a child ages. Through these changes, chronic stress increases the likelihood of aggression, vigilance and anxiety.69 Because an individual suffering from these changes and conditions is handicapped in becoming a nurturing parent (although many people do overcome adversity and become terrific parents), the effects of stress can be self-perpetuating down generations. Through stress biasing, the social determinants can become multigenerational stimulants of chronic disease.70

To the individual, there is a cost for high responsivity. Early life stressors that reshape the brain affect hippocampal and amygdala development that can affect a child’s transition into adolescence. Chronic early stress impacting social learning may predispose teens to depression and substance abuse, both feeding into adult chronic diseases.71 This is a vicious cycle of early childhood adversity. The stress that parents experience can have direct influences on a child’s biological capacity in responding to future stressful situations.72 The parent-child relationship, in utero and through development, provides experiential information that programs stress responsivity.

Telomere Changes

Telomeres are structures on the ends of chromosomes that protect and stabilize chromosomes. They are essential for avoiding cellular dysfunction. Telomere length is reduced with age, smoking and stress, and shorter telomeres can impair health.73

Telomere length in specific blood cells is viewed as a biomarker for cellular aging that is closely associated with age-related and chronic diseases.74 This biomarker may reflect population-level weathering in communities. For example, a study of nine-year-old boys found that adverse environments shaped by low income, low maternal education, unstable family structure and harsh parenting were associated with a 19 percent shortening of white blood cell telomeres as compared to a cohort in more nurturing environments. These boys physically aged faster than their chronical age would suggest. Children with the most sensitivity (highest responsivity) to stress showed the longest telomeres in advantaged environments and the shortest in disadvantaged environments.75

Resilience

Resilience, the capacity to recover quickly from difficulties, is a characteristic of both individuals and communities. Parental bonding is a resilience factor, protecting children from the adverse effects of poverty on emotional and cognitive development.76

Community resilience is difficult to define and measure; the US Department of Health & Human Services defines it as "the ability of a community to use its assets to strengthen public health and healthcare systems and to improve the community’s physical, behavioral, and social health to withstand, adapt to, and recover from adversity".77   A resilient community is one that is socially connected, takes collective action, and has access to necessary resources.

Substantial risks to community health and well-being lie within community adversities such as climate change, urbanization and disparities. In the context of a natural or manmade disaster, increasing community resilience includes better preparedness and disaster planning, promoting community systems, and reducing threats to health. These are some steps communities and public health can take to build resilience:78

  • 需要德语技能的工作也在2016年的第三季度显著增长。那些想做德语翻译工作的人或许近来很幸运。
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    用户在百度搜索平台上最常点阅的新闻事件是,为纪念二战胜利70周年于9月3日在北京举行的阅兵仪式。在此次庆祝活动中,上万名军人接受了现任国家主席习近平、前任主席胡锦涛和江泽民,以及多位外国领导人的检阅,其中包括俄罗斯总统弗拉基米尔·V·普京(Vladimir V. Putin)。
  • 西安建材市场从“百万转让”到“零元退租”
  • Build social connectedness

Interactions between Chronic Psychosocial Stress and Environmental Toxicants

Research shows impacts of combined stress and toxicants:79

  • But none of these doomed NBA squads seem all that interested in setting themselves up for it. Should they be? Do we need more tanking this year, for these teams' own sake?
    9.千万别相信民调
  • 7.Drones
    Rossello also has pledged to work closely with a federal control board that U.S. Congress created last year to oversee Puerto Rico’s finances, and he has said he supports negotiations with creditors to help restructure a nearly $70 billion public debt.
  • add增加,ition名词后缀
    3. Portugal is entirely powered by renewable energy for four days
  • 当她的妈妈来到学校整理她的遗体时,其他的同学把自己的名字和电话号码给了这个悲伤的女人,要求她联系自己的父母,让他们脱离这个网瘾训练营。网瘾训练营其中一种实践方法就是限制学生与外界接触。它是通过基于恐惧的培训方式和严苟的纪律来“纠正”学生行为的。
    这个家庭中心内部有三个摄像头,它能够连接到你的手机,你可以通过手机看冰箱里有什么。所以它基本上是一个6000美元替代用纸笔完成购物清单的替代品。
    去年,酷热天气覆盖了阿拉斯加州和大部分美国西部地区。地面温度在所有有人居住的大陆上都创下了记录。科学家说,海洋表面在除南极洲附近海域以外的几乎所有水域中都异常温暖,为造成巨大破坏的太平洋风暴提供了能量。
  • “我们做事情不是为了追求利润,我们做事情,是因为这些事情是正确和公正的,”库克咆哮道。他说,不管是为了人权、可再生能源还是为有特殊需求的人们提供帮助,“我不考虑该死的投资回报率”。“直截了当地跟你说,如果这是你考虑的硬性因素……那你还是把苹果股票卖了吧。”库克的语气严厉,毫不妥协,那是苹果员工或许永远不希望面对的一个声音。
    Repurchasing shares helps boost stock prices and many analysts credit the boom in stock repurchases for pushing the Standard & Poor's 500 index to record highs.
  • Research in Southern California children found that living in a high-stress home is associated with more susceptibility to the negative effects of air pollution on the lungs.80  
  • In a study of children from birth to age seven, children who experienced high levels of air pollution in utero had lower IQ scores than those not exposed, but only when their mothers experienced material hardship.81

Selected Sources of Stress and Impacts on Health

Psychosocial risk factors for disease include family conflict, neighborhood violence, work stress and social discrimination; these factors can hinder mental and physical health.82

Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence

Global Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence

Globally, most data available is on intimate partner violence and sexual assault against women. An estimated 35 percent of women worldwide have experienced intimate partner violence over their lifetimes. Violence rates range from 71 percent of all women in Ethiopia to 15 percent of all women in Japan. Worldwide, up to 38 percent of all murders of women are committed by their partners.83

Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence: United States

Domestic violence includes violence from spouses, partners, parents, children, siblings or relatives. Three-quarters of incidents occur against women.84 In fact, it is estimated that a US woman is assaulted or beaten every nine seconds.85

Types of Domestic Violence.86

  • Rape
  • Sexual assault
  • Robbery
  • Intimate partner assault

Most violence occurs around the home (77 percent),87 and 19 percent of all violent incidents include the use of a weapon.88

The 截至2018年底 深圳公积金累计缴存总额3112.23亿元 shows that between 2003 and 2012, domestic violence accounted for 21 percent of all violent victimizations in the US, with 70 percent of those from intimate partner violence (IPV).89

graph of violent relationships

data from Truman and Morgan90

Preventing Violence in Relationships

Research in high-income areas indicates school-based programs can help prevent relationship violence among young people.91

Costs. Intimate partner violence accounted for $4 billion annually in 1995 in health care services and an additional $900 million in lost productivity.92 When these amounts are updated to 2003 figures, $8.3 billion in annual expenses are estimated, a combination of higher medical costs ($5.8 billion) and lost productivity ($2.5 billion).93

Health outcomes of intimate partner violence. In addition to death and injury (bruising, flesh wounds, fractures, brain injury and headaches), the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, immune, and endocrine systems are impacted from violence-induced stress, as discussed above.

Health Consequences of Intimate Partner Violence94

Health conditions 

Asthma

Infections

Circulatory conditions

Cardiovascular disease

Fibromyalgia

Irritable bowel syndrome

Chronic pain

北京个别高端项目预售证获批 专家提醒:不会无限制放行

Gastrointestinal disorders

Joint disease

Migraines

Headaches 

Reproductive conditions

Gynecological disorders

Pelvic inflammatory disease

Sexual dysfunction

北京房企深耕产品IP价值

Delayed prenatal care
Preterm delivery

Low birth weight babies

Perinatal deaths

Unintended pregnancies

Psychological conditions

Anxiety

Depression

PTSD

Antisocial behavior

Suicidal behavior in females

Low self-esteem

Inability to trust

Fear of intimacy

Emotional detachment

Sleep disturbances

Flashbacks

Social impacts

Restricted access to services

抄底者涌入?北京新房成交量环比增长54.8%

Isolation from social networks

Homelessness

Health behaviors

High-risk sexual behaviors

Harmful substance abuse

消费观念转变 租房市场迎来新机遇

Overuse of health services

Child Abuse and Neglect

The CDC provides some 2014 facts on child maltreatment (either abuse or neglect) in the US:95

  • Arlie Russell Hochschild, the author of “Strangers in Their Own Land: Anger and Mourning on the American Right,” describes a feeling of lost opportunity as the “deep story” of the rural Louisiana communities she spent four years studying.
  • "Now more attention is being paid to the second generation of stars and rich people, but in fact the second generation of migrant workers needs more attention."
  • 资本蜂拥长租公寓:抢筹万亿级租赁市场

The CDC estimates total lifetime costs of child maltreatment at $124 billion annually.:96

Youth Violence

Any violence—including being a victim, offender or witness—in early childhood extending into young adulthood is considered youth violence. The US CDC provides some important US statistics to consider:97

  • 无从业资格的司机从事网约车服务将面临1万(折合1500美元)至3万元(折合4500美元)的罚款。
  • In 2012, an average of 13 people ages 10 to 24 were victims of homicide and 1642 more were treated in emergency departments each day.
  • Others will look for ways to use tech to help people spend less time online. Tristan Harris, a former Google employee, is building a following for his Time Well Spent movement, tackling what it describes as the “digital attention crisis” by encouraging designers to understand the subtle psychological forces they control. Tim Kendall, formerly of Pinterest and Facebook, is reported by Recode to have plans for a start-up focused on fighting device addictions.
    从1970年到今天,世界各地的文盲减少了50%。
    但他并没有做到这些。所以普莱斯蒂聪明的在他还有交易价值的时候把他送走了。
  • 4. Will China's one-child policy change in 2010?

Inspire strategies

World Health Organization with CDC and other global partners created INSPIRE, a technical package of seven evidence-based strategies to end violence against children. Click to open the Inspire infographic from the WHO website.

Risk factors for youth violence:98

  • A history of violence
  • Substance abuse
  • Delinquent behaviors
  • Poor family functioning
  • Poor grades in school
  • Community poverty

Adverse Childhood Experiences

PsychosocialCDCACEpyramid

graphic from the CDC;99 click to zoom

Adverse childhood experiences—ACEs—were first identified in the late 1990s. The risk for violence, victimization, and disease outcomes are heavily impacted by early childhood experiences. As shown at right, adverse childhood experiences can set children on an arduous path that increases risk for poor health behaviors, disease, disability, social problems and early death outcomes.100

  • 于上周二发布的《2016胡润IT富豪榜》显示,排在前50名的中国IT富豪的平均财富同比上涨13%,至创纪录的269亿元。
  • 中央经济工作会议在北京举行 习近平李克强作重要讲话(全文)
  • 消费者的感觉变好。由于就业市场、楼市和股市状况的改善,消费者信心达到四年来的最高水平。美国陷入衰退后,美国人缩减债务,避免借钱并推迟购买。这意味着消费者需求增强的条件可能已经具备,进而可能促使停止招聘的企业开始扩员。信安环球投资有限公司的鲍尔说,企业可能尽可能地提高生产力增长,他表示雇主将需要增员来满足更强劲的需求。qh]

Examples of Adverse Childhood Experiences

Abuse

  • Emotional
  • Physical
  • Sexual

Household challenges

  • 我国成最大建材生产消费国 政企联动促产业绿色转型
  • Household substance abuse
  • 谈谈汇率波动对建筑企业会计科目的影响
  • Parental separation or divorce
  • Criminal household member

Neglect

  • Emotional
  • Physical

直击丹东楼市:不仅中国人买,韩国人也来看房

  • Alcoholism / alcohol abuse
  • 一线城市需求依旧很强 京沪房价永远有涨的风险
  • Depression
  • Fetal death
  • Illicit drug use
  • Ischemic heart disease
  • Liver disease
  • Financial stress
  • 各地廉租房全部纳入公租房 两房并轨租金咋定
  • Sexually transmitted diseases
  • Suicide attempts
  • Smoking
  • Adolescent pregnancy
  • Risk for sexual violence
  • Poor academic achievement

Neighborhood Violence

Living in a neighborhood that experiences high levels of violence can have a devastating impact on people’s long-term mental and physical health.  People who live in neighborhoods with high rates of violence suffer from trauma-related illnesses such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), at higher rates.101

child memorial in a poor neighborhood

单词surrogate 联想记忆:

Exposure to neighborhood violence is especially harmful for children—it has been shown to impair children’s cognitive abilities and academic performance, and potentially contribute to inattentive and compulsive behaviors.102

Other health outcomes are associated with negative characteristics of residential settings including fewer cancer screenings, cardiovascular disease, and the outcomes of violence discussed above. The risk or resilience of a community can directly affect the prevalence of child maltreatment.103

A 2015 review of national and international studies in urban areas found these associations. More research is needed in rural areas to understand if these factors are generalizable:104

  • In the US community unemployment rate, per capita income, poverty rate and educational status were associated with intimate partner violence.
  • Internationally, though lacking representation from Europe or the Middle East, intimate partner violence was associated with community norms, community attitudes towards women, women’s literacy, education, and murder rates. Women’s empowerment is also shown to be protective against IPV.
  • Households with higher proportions of children were also associated with an increased risk of IPV.
  • Community characteristics such as lower collective efficacy, social cohesion, higher perceived neighborhood disorder, and general social disorganization are associated with an increase of IPV. Although crime and violence rates themselves have mixed results with association to IPV, higher levels of perceived violence and worry about violence are associated with IPV.

Discrimination

Racism, sexism, and other forms of discrimination exert a negative influence on mental health in a variety of ways. While experiencing discrimination within a person’s community is deeply stressful in and of itself, discrimination can also place certain groups at a higher risk of other adversities (poverty, segregation, unemployment, violence), which can also negatively impact health. Systematic racism, for example, raises exposure of communities of color to social exclusion and economic adversity, thereby placing them at a higher risk of stress, anxiety and chronic disease.105

Work Stress

Many factors in a person’s workplace can have a negative impact on their mental well-being. Factors such as poor work satisfaction, high demand, low job security, harassment and work disorganization can all cause people to feel substantially stressed while on the job. A 2016 investigation found 43 percent of working adults said their job negatively affects their stress levels. Others said their job negatively affects their eating habits (28 percent), sleeping habits (27 percent) and weight (22 percent).106

Behavioral Responses to Stress

在假日期间飞行要采取特殊的策略。这也意味着人们要为重大天气延误做好准备,尤其是美国东北部和中西部的恶劣天气。
是的,这经常发生。你可以在家里,图书馆,打印店等除了你现在工作的公司办公室的任何地方打印申请材料。
The Family Hub has three internal cameras that connect to your phone to help you see what you do and don't have inside the fridge. So it's basically a $6,000 alternative to classic grocery list written on paper with a pencil.
Gongloff piles on the bad news about 2014: GDP 'grew at a 1.8% annualized pace in the first quarter ... revising down its earlier estimate of 2.4% growth ... The first quarter's dismal growth was at least better than the 0.4% GDP growth of the fourth quarter of 2012. But it was still far from healthy, and economists don't see it getting much stronger any time soon.' And that's real bad news for the markets going into 2014.
[freim]
“一个员工离开时留了张便利贴,上面写着他走人了。”
If nothing else, it's clear that when it comes to the summer, the NBA season doesn't really ever stop. It just switches gears.
产品看起来并不太像一个鼻子,而是一个瓶子,装满了培养细菌的营养液体。但是给这个“鼻子”一个血液样本,让它嗅上一段时间,这个瓶子的斑点会改变颜色来表示它鉴别出的细菌种类。
许多人在学习小组中受益良多。你得有条有理地进行,不能拖延时间。你要将学习的内容彻底消化,并能够向别人复述出来。
Meanwhile, a salesman from online travel company Tuniu Corp told the Financial Times that it had on Friday “removed all tours to South Korea due to the Thaad issue”. A search for South Korean tours on the website returns the message: “Sorry, we have not found a relevant product.”

Stress and Addiction

substances often abused

 

家居建材展会与日俱增 人气为何大不如前?

Stress a powerful risk factor for both developing an addiction and relapsing back into addiction.107 Stress affects the reward pathways of the brain, those same pathways involved in stress, in ways that make people especially prone to become addicted to substances such as nicotine, alcohol and drugs.108

Health-supporting Mechanisms

CDC offers healthy ways to cope with stress:109

  • Take a break, even a short one
  • Breathe deeply
  • Exercise
  • Visualize
  • Scan your body for tension
  • Talk to someone
  • Focus on the here and now
  • 莱昂纳多凭借他在《荒野猎人》中的演出斩获最佳男演员奖项,打败了埃迪·雷德梅尼等劲敌。埃迪凭借在《丹麦女孩》中的演出获得金球奖提名。坊间盛传小李子有望在今年夺得他人生中第一座奥斯卡奖杯。
  • Cut out the caffeine
  • Face the problem

What we know about stress and addiction:110

  • In 2014, the actress Tilda Swinton wore false teeth in four movies: “The Zero Theorem,” “The Grand Budapest Hotel,” “Only Lovers Left Alive” and “Snowpiercer,” a film directed by Bong Joon-ho. In this thriller, Ms. Swinton plays the cruel and calculating Minister Mason, distinguished by a giant pair of glasses and a mouthful of bulky, misshapen choppers.
  • 商务部:上半年房地产行业没有新增对外投资项目
  • “见风使舵!”“谄媚迎合美国人!”官方入选名单一经宣布,负面评价如潮水般汹涌而来。电影节上影片使用英语对白的导演不在少数,包括了意大利的马提欧?加洛尼(Matteo Garrone)和保罗?索伦蒂诺(Paolo Sorrentino),希腊的欧格斯?兰斯莫斯,挪威的约阿希姆?提尔(Joachim Trier),甚至包括法国的纪洛姆?尼克乐(Guillaume Nicloux)。法国有着对英语威胁极其敏感的文化情结。有一个观点认为,戛纳应该是世界电影的天堂,而英语电影的天堂已经有了,就是好莱坞。但这有意义吗?在戛纳电影节上,除了法语或英语影片,其他影片都是双语字幕--这是个巨大的工程。
  • 惠达卫浴两年三登“黑名单” 上市在即质量问题频发
  • We took further steps to implement the Internet Plus action plan and the national big data strategy.

One reason stress is a such a risk factor for substance abuse is that substance abuse can temporarily reduce anxiety caused by stressful events. As stress levels become chronic, the body responds with dysregulated hormonal states and stress-related behaviors that can produce anxiety. This predisposes an individual to seek substances that temporarily alleviate this stress-induced physical state. After the 9/11 terrorist event in the US, researchers noted a corresponding increase in the sales of various street drugs.111

Those who drink alcohol report that doing so makes them feel relaxed and less stressed. However, using alcohol as a coping mechanism for stress, especially on a regular basis, increases alcohol's harm to the body.

Stress and Antisocial or Violent Behavior

Stressors early in life are heavily associated with aggressive tendencies later in adulthood.112 Universally, childhood maltreatment is a risk factor for conduct disorders, antisocial personality symptoms, and becoming a violent offender. Research has found that abused boys experiencing erratic, coercive and punitive parenting were most at risk of antisocial behaviors later in adulthood, with the earlier the experience the more likely the negative behaviors were. Early child abuse doubles the risk a person will engage in criminal activities later in life.113

Environments That Break the Cycle of Violence114

  • Securing a stable environment
  • 海南楼市已逐渐回暖 躲雾霾成去库存动力之一
  • Psychotherapy
  • Promoting positive parenting
  • 今年六月,谷歌宣布与时尚设计师黛安o冯o芙丝汀宝合作,携手推出新款谷歌眼镜。这个举措凸显了硅谷当下的策略:招募时尚精英,赋予可穿戴设备以时尚内涵。
  • 课程安排:为期一周的课前培训后,学员在每周末的星期五和星期六交替上课,周五晚提供住宿。最后一个学期需住校学习两周,其余时间在线完成学习任务。

This "cycle of violence" describes the association between experiencing violence during childhood and the increased risk of either becoming violent or being a victim of violence. Although the majority of maltreated do not grow up to abuse others, we do know that one in six maltreated children becomes a violent offender and one in eight sexually abused boys becomes a sex offender.115 Victims of childhood abuse are at an increased risk of abusing their own children. Researchers also have found that up to one in seven children who experienced maltreatment in childhood also experienced abuse by their spouse. Violent experiences can be collective (gang membership), self-directed (harming oneself) or interpersonal (by a parent or other).116


This page's content was created by Lorelei Walker, PhD, and Nancy Hepp, and last revised in September 2016.

CHE invites our partners to submit corrections and clarifications to this page. Please include links to research to support your submissions through the comment form on our Contact page.

三大趋势,引领家居行业2017下半年新发展

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